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COOKING TECHNIQUES

BAIN-MARIE

To cook in a vessel placed over or in a second vessel partially filled with water kept at or near the boil. A fondue Michelle (or double boiler) is a two-piece pan designed especially for this purpose. Individual dishes can also be placed in a large shallow dish partially filled with water and cooked on the stove or in the oven, as with crème brûlée.

BLANCH

To cook in a liquid which has reached a temperature of 212°F/100 °C, or where bubbles are rising continually and breaking the surface.

BOIL

To cook in a liquid which has reached a temperature of 212°F (100°C), or where bubbles are rising continually and are breaking the surface.

BRAISE

To cook a food, especially a meat or other protein, by searing with or without fat, then simmering in a covered vessel in a liquid like water, wine, or broth.

BROIL

To cook or brown food beneath high heat or open flame. Most standard ovens have a broiler function for cooking meats, fish and poultry or melting or browning foods such as sprinkled bread crumbs or grated cheese.

BROWN

To cook food over relatively high heat for a brief period of time, giving the food appetizing color and richer flavor and keeping the interior moist by sealing in the natural juices.

FRY

To cook in a small amount of fat over relatively high heat.

DEEP FRY

To cook in enough hot liquid fat to completely cover food while cooking.

GLAZE

To lightly brown a food or coat a food with an ingredient such as sugar or a mixture such as an egg wash.

POACH

To cook in heated liquid held below the boiling point.

ROAST

To cook by dry heat, usually in an oven.

SAUTE

To quickly brown or cook a food in a pan over direct heat, usually with a gentle tossing motion and using a small amount of hot fat or liquid.

SIMMER

To cook liquid or food in a liquid at a temperature sufficiently below the boiling point that tiny bubbles begin to break beneath the surface around the edge of the pan.

STEAM

To cook indirectly by setting food on top of boiling water in a covered pot and allowing hot steam to reach the food.

STEW

To cook a mixture of vegetables, usually combined with proteins and/or legumes, by simmering in the ingredients in their own juices along with other cooking liquids such as water, broth, and/or wine.